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Nowadays there are practically no restrictions on the sign inventory. De facto we can implement unlimited character sets, the operating system of a computer can now manage 256 times 256 different symbols - 'manage' means inputting, outputting, sorting, comparing etc. (UNICODE).
Together with these new possibilities a whole field of new research activity has evolved. An interdisciplinary group of scholars has formed as the so-called Text Encoding Initiative. They have created SGML, the Structured General Markup Language, and they are constantly reviewing and elaborating text encoding developments.
For the first time now, the de facto integration of the original sound has entered the range of linguistic vision. The new dimension was made possible by the technical advancement of computers.
The figure shows a transcription workbench especially developed for annotating, segmenting and aligning the LCAAJ recordings.
On the top you see the actual segment of the questionnaire.
On the bottom you find the operating board for navigating the sound. The center field allows to transcribe the recorded sound along with possibilities for modeling the text (define speakers, sentences, alphabets, and render other linguistic and extra-linguistic attributes of the text). The workbench aligns the sound and the transcriptions.
Wilkens, R. / Hölter, M., EYDES Transcription Workbench - Bidirectional transcription of Yiddish spoken text. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation 1998. Granada 1998.